Database management is a method of managing information that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users, modifying it as necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from getting corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s total informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table has a variety of fields, also known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most well-known kind of database is a relational model, designed by E. F. «Ted» Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data without the necessity of changing several databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases and offer different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views that are based on different models of data and can include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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